Promotions Transfers and Separation

Chapter Nine

Promotions Transfers and Separation

Definition of Terms

  • Promotions: means an improvement in pay, prestige, position and responsibilities of an employee within his or her organization.
  • Transfer: Transfer involves a change in the job (accompanied by a change in the place of the job) of an employee without a change in the responsibilities or remuneration.
  • Demotion: The permanent movement of a staff member from one position in one job class to a position in another job class of decreased responsibility or complexity of duties and in a lower salary range.
  • Separations: Lay-offs, resignations and dismissals separate employees from the employers.


9.1. Types of promotion

A.        Promotion by seniority

In a straight seniority system—where the only factor in allocating jobs is length of service—a worker would enter the organization at the lowest possible level and advance to higher positions as vacancies occur


  • Employees get to experience many jobs on the way up the promotional ladder, provided that they stay long enough and openings develop. Jobs can be grouped into different ladders such that experience on one job constitutes good training for the next.
  • Cooperation between workers is generally not hindered by competition for subjectively determined promotions.
  • Workers need not seek to gain favor with supervisors (through non-productive means) to obtain advancement. If, for example, a supervisor’s direction violates the interests or policy of the ranch, employees would have less fear of reprisal for not following it.


  • Some employees may not be able or want to do certain jobs into which a strict seniority system would propel them.  Employees should be able to opt not to accept an opportunity for promotion.
  • Ambitious workers may not be willing to "wait their turn" for higher-level jobs that they want.
  • Employee motivation to work as well as possible is not reinforced.
  • New employees would be underrepresented in higher levels for a long time (since they are the last hired and have least seniority).
  • Employers would tend to hire over skilled people at entry level, so they have the capacity for promotion.

B.        Promotion by Merit

Promotions based on merit advance workers who are best qualified for the position, rather than those with the greatest seniority. When present employees are applying for a position, a worker’s past performance is also considered. Effective performance appraisal helps build trust in the system.

Merit is not easy to define and measure, it often requires difficult subjective evaluations. At some point, someone has to make a judgment about an employee’s relative merit. Employees may find it difficult to make a distinction between merit, because it is so hard to measure in an objective way, and favoritism.


  • Employee job-related abilities can be better matched with jobs to be filled.
  • Motivated and ambitious employees can be rewarded for outstanding performance.
  • Performance is fostered.


  • Merit and ability are difficult to measure in an objective, impartial way.
  • Supervisors may reward their favorites, rather than the best employees, with high merit ratings.
  • Disruptive conflict may result from worker competition for merit ratings.
  • Unlawful discrimination may enter into merit evaluations.

9.2. Reason for Transfer

Transfer of employees is must and essential in an organization for the purpose of minimizing politics between employees, to ensure cordial relationship between employees, to increase transparency in work, to obviate syndicate of employees for unethical purpose and to obviate nepotism in organization.

Employee transfers is considerable, as most essential when a position of employee is a top-level in hierarchy. Especially in the governmental organizations employees holding top-level positions are affected with frequent transfers for the reason, to obviate nepotism into increase transparency in the work. Organizations having no transfers for their employees may create their own informal groups for their common interest and their own benefit. Subsequently, this may leads to secrecy in the flow of work, eventually, no transparency in work. Employee transfers less organization may definitely see organizational politics among employees, that which leads to fall in coordination in between employees, eventually may lead to drop in overall organizational performance.

The followings are reasons for transfer

  1. To avoid favoritism and nepotism. 
  2. To avoid gaining capacity of influencing and egocentrism. 
  3. To avoid monotony in the work of an employee. 
  4. Makes an employee accountable to his seat, so as not to find mistake by his successor. 
  5. So as to avoid excess dependency on particular employee, otherwise may affect the purpose of hierarchy and lose control over subordinates. 
  6. To create transparency among the employees and their work. 
  7. It limits taking advantage and sole control over the seat or section. 
  8. To avoid unnecessary influence on others for their own advantage. 
  9. To make conversant of different seats work. 
  10. To maintain healthy relationship in between all the staff members to retain harmonious environment to avoid unnecessary disputes.

9.3. Types of Transfer

Employee transfers may be classified as below.

  1. Production transfers: Such transfers are made to meet the company requirements. The surplus employees in one department/section who are efficient might be absorbed in other place where there is a requirement. Such transfers help to stabilize employment.
  2.  Replacement transfers: This takes place to replace a new employee who has been in the organization for a long time and thereby giving some relief to an old employee from the heavy pressure of work.
  3. Versality transfers: It is also known as rotation. It is made to develop all round employees by moving them from one job to another. It also helps to reduce boredom and monotony.
  4. Personnel or remedial transfers: Such a transfer is made to rectify mistakes in selection and placement. As a follow up, the wrongly placed employee is transferred to a more suitable job.
  5. Shift transfers: This is pretty common where there is more than one shift and when there is regularized rotation.

9.4. Types of Separation

A.        Resignation

In most cases, employees voluntarily resign organization employment. Employees voluntary resigning should provide you with a written letter of resignation. While resignation is voluntary, you should remember to acknowledge receipt of a letter of resignation right away. Accept the resignation by writing “Accepted” with an effective date and signing your name and date on the original (copy to employee). Once accepted, an employee may not rescind the resignation without management’s agreement.

B.         Retirement

An employee’s decision to retire is entirely voluntary. However, an employee’s retirement decision does not automatically terminate organization employment. Retiring employees must also submit a letter of resignation to the home department.

C.        Probationary Releases and Extensions

Probationary employees are at-will and may be released during probation. You are encouraged to contact Employee Relations as soon as you begin having concerns about a probationary employee. The decision to release an employee should be reviewed prior to the end of the probationary period with Employee & Labor Relations.

In some circumstances, the probationary period may be extended an additional three months. Probationary employees must be advised, in writing, of the reasons for the extension no later than seven calendar days before the six month probationary period ends. A decision to extend probation requires review and coordination with employee & labor relations. You are encouraged to contact Employee and Labor Relations as soon as you begin thinking about extending an employee’s probationary period but no later than two weeks before the end of probationary period. More information about managing the probationary employees, see the 'Performance Management' section on the left.

D.        Termination for Cause

Career employees may be terminated at the conclusion of the progressive discipline process for failure to improve attendance, conduct and/or performance. Career employees may be terminated without previous disciplinary action due to serious misconduct. In any circumstance, termination of a career employee must be reviewed and approved in advance by Employee and Labor Relations.

E.        Resignation in Lieu of Termination

Employees subject to an involuntary separation action, e.g., probationary release, termination, may voluntarily request to resign in lieu of rumination. Management is encouraged to accept offers to resign in lieu of termination. However, management may not coerce or otherwise pressure an employee to agree to resign in lieu of termination. You should be in contact Employee and Labor Relations prior to accepting resignations in lieu of termination.

F.Termination of Employment Contracts

Contract employees are at-will and the terms for termination should be provided in the employment contract. A decision to release a contract employee prior to the normal termination date of a contract, or non-renewal of a long-term contract employee, should be reviewed in advance with Employee and Labor Relations.

G.Termination of Managers & Senior Professionals (MSP)

Managers and senior professionals (MSP) may be terminated when, in management's judgment, the needs or resources of a department or the performance or conduct of an employee do not justify the continuation of an employee's appointment. There are no layoff policy provisions for MSP’s. Then contact Employee & Labor Relations for assistance in terminating or releasing a manager or senior professional.

H.Job Abandonment

Employees absent from work, without authorization, for more than a certain number of days (consult the applicable organization policy or collective bargaining agreement), may trigger the job abandonment process. Employees may be terminated for job abandonment following the appropriate notification process. You must work closely with Employee and Labor Relations to evaluate the need for and decision to proceed with a job abandonment action.


Employees may be laid off from career positions based on a lack of work and/or lack of funds. Layoff may be permanent or temporary. Layoffs are generally determined by seniority (total years at UC) order and should not, in most cases, be based on performance. Generally, employees need 60 days written notice before permanent layoff. Therefore, departments are encouraged to begin layoff planning at least 90 days in advance of the effective date. Department considering layoffs should review the applicable policies or collective bargaining agreements and consult with Employee & Labor Relations early in the planning process. More detailed information regarding layoff actions is available in the LAYOFF RESOURCES FOR MANAGERS section to the left.

J.Medical Separation

A regular status employee who becomes unable to perform essential functions of his or her position with or without reasonable accommodation, due to a disability, may be separated from employment. Prior to medical separation, the organization will engage in the interactive process in accordance with the applicable provisions of organization policy or collective bargaining agreements.


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