The managerial function of staffing is defined as filling and keeping filled positions in the organizational structure through identifying work-force requirement, inventorying the people available recruiting, selecting, placing, promoting, appraising, compensating the training and/or developing both candidates and current job holders to accomplish their tasks effectively and efficiently.
The staffing process represents the following eight activities or steps:
- Human resource planning /Man power planning/;
- Orientation and Induction;
- Training and Development;
- Performance Appraisal;
- Transfer; and [Promotion, demotion, lateral transfer)
1. Human Resource Planning (Man power planning):
It is the process of determining the need of the right man at the right time to the right job. It is the process of determining the need of the provision of adequate human resources to the job in the organization. It is designed to ensure that the personnel need of the organization will be constantly and appropriately met. It is accomplished through analysis of
- Internal factors such as current and expected skill needs, vacancies, and departmental expansions and reductions; and
- External environmental factors such as the labor market, the government regulation, the labor union; etc
As a result of this analysis, plans are developed for executing the other steps in the staffing process. This helps an organization to determine the need of employees for short term or for long term.
There are four basic steps in human resource planning:
- Planning for future needs. How many people with what abilities will the organization need to remain in operation for the foreseeable future?
- Planning for future balance. How many people presently employed can be expected to stay with the organization? The difference between this number and the number the organization will need leads to the next step.
- Planning for recruiting and selecting or for lay off. How can the organization attain the number of people it will need?
- Planning for development. How should the training and movement of individuals within the organization be managed so that the organization will be assured of a continuing supply of experienced and capable personnel?
The organizational internal environment (such as its strategic plan) as well as its external environmental will broadly define for managers the limits with in which their human resource plan must operate. Once there broad limits have been established, managers can begin to compare their future personnel needs against the existing personnel situation inorder to determine what recruitment, training and development procedures they will need to follow. The fact that the internal and external environments of an organization change means that managers must monitor these environments to keep their human resource plan up to date.
The central elements in human resource planning are forecasting and the human resource audit. Forecasting attempts to assess the future personnel needs of the organization. The human resource audit assesses the organizations current human resources. These two elements give managers the information they need to plan the other steps in the staffing process, such as recruiting and training.
It is the process of reaching out and attempting to attract potential candidates who are capable of and interested in filling available positions of an organization. It is concerned with developing a pool of job candidates, in line with the human resource plan. It is an intermediary activity between manpower planning on the one hand, and selection of employees on the other hand.
An important part of the recruiting process is developing a written statement of the content and the location (on the organization chart) of each job. this statement is called the job description or position description. This statement lists the title, duties and responsibilities for that position. Once this position /job description has been established/determined and accompanying hiring or job specification, which defines the background, experience, and personal characteristics an individual must have in order to perform effectively in the position, is developed.
- Sources of Recruitment:
Sources of supply are the places, agencies, and institutions to which recruiters go to seek potential candidates that will fill the vacant positions or the job needed. These sources of supply are generally categorized in to two.
(i) Internal Recruitment / recruitment from within: this involves recruitment within the organization; it could be through promotion lateral transfer, demotion or any there from.
- It is usually less expensive to recruit or promote from within than to hire from outside the organization.
- It may faster loyalty and inspire greater effort among organization members.
- Individuals will already be acclaimed to the organization and may therefore need less initial training and orientation.
- It limits the pool of talent available to the organization.
(ii) External /outside/ recruitment: It involves recruitment outside the organization. The major alternative sources are:
- Direct application
- Employee referrals /word of mouth/
- Educational institutions
- Private/public employment agency
- Other sources such as professional associations
- It can be defined as the process of determining from among applicants WHICH ONE FILLS BEST for the job description and specification which is offered to the job within the organization. It involves evaluating and choosing among job candidates. The role of recruiting is to locate job candidates; the role of selection is the evaluate each candidate and the pick the best one for the position available. Application forms, resumes, interviews, employment & skill tests, and reference checks are the most commonly used aids in the selection process.
- Selection is the mutual process whereby the organization decides whether or not to make a job offer and the candidate decides on the acceptability of the offer.
4. Orientation and socialization /induction/
It is designed to provide a new employee with the information he/she needs inorder to function comfortably and effectively in the organization. Typically, socialization will convey three types of information.
- General information about the daily work routine;
- a review of the organizations history, purpose, operations, and products or services, and how the employee's job contributes to the organizations needs, and
- a detailed presentation, perhaps in a brochure, of organizations policies, work rules, and employee benefits.
5. Training and Development:
Organizing human resources is a dynamic activity. Job demands change, which requires altering and updating an employee's skills. Therefore, managers are involved in deciding when their subordinates may be in need of training. Thus, training is a process designed to maintain or improve current job performance; development is a process designed to develop skills necessary for future work activities.
Reasons for Training:
- to orient new employees: while schools and training institutions provide general education in many skills new employees require additional training to acquaint them with specific situation of the organization and the job.
- To improve performance: training will help to improve performance by increasing productivity, improving quality, reducing turnover, reducing labor cost, etc.
- To maintain current performance: sometimes individuals holding a position or doing a job may get obsolete so train these employees will help to maintain current performance.
There are two different types of training techniques.
(i) On-the-job training
(ii) Off-the-job training
- On-the-job training: involves learning methods and techniques by actually doing a job (performing the work) and increasing the levels of skills of the employee. The employee usually learns under the supervision of the in mediate boss or co-worker who has greater knowledge and skills about the job. It is widely used, because it is economic and convenient; and no special facilities, equipment and training places are required and the employee produces and contributes to the organizational objective and at the same time he learns job rotation and job instruction methods are few of the techniques used in on the job training. It is convenient for small number of trainees. Some of its disadvantages are: - it creates disinterest of employees, employees have dual responsibility, & it is not convenient for large number of employees.
- Off-the-job training: This technique involves participation of employees in a series of events removed from the actual performance of the organization and the work situation.
- It creates interest of employees: because employees are removed from their routine activities and are moved to new environment.
- It is convenient for large number of employees (trainees)
- It is expensive- there are costs for trainers, facilities, and also the employee does not contribute during the training.
- There is a problem of transfer of knowledge from the training situation to the actual situation of the job.
Vestibule training, classroom instruction / lectures, films and simulation exercises are the more popular techniques of off-the-job training.
6. Performance Appraisal:
It is the process used to determine whether an employee is performing according to what is designed or intended. It helps to formally evaluate the adequacy of recruitment and selection and suggests whether or not the employee will need to be replaced, or trained.
The many purposes of performance appraisal can be summarized in the following key points:
- Performance appraisal should lead directly to increased productivity.
- It helps in salary administration
- It plays a vital role in determining an employee for promotion.
- Appraisals are used as a vehicle for bringing about employee development because the results of the performance evaluation can serve as a basis for coaching and counseling.
Performance appraisal results are used extensively in human resource research.
It is a shift of a person from one job, organization level, or location to another. The transfer may be a promotion, demotion, or a shift to another same level position /lateral transfer/.
Promotion: refers to a shift for advancement of an employee to a higher job with more employment and prestige, higher status, and higher responsibility. The possibility of advancement often serves as a major incentive for superior performance, and promotions are the most significant way to recognize such superior performance. Therefore, it is externally important that promotions be fair i.e., based on merit and free from favoritism.
Demotion: refers to a shift of an employee to a lower position in the hierarchy due to inefficiency, and incompetence to fulfill assigned tasks.
Lateral transfer: refers to the movement of an employee from one job or position to another without involving any significant change in the employment and status
This refers to those factors that bring the termination or ceasing of the relationship between the organization and the employee. Separation may result from such factors as resignation, layoff, discharges, and retirement.