Training and Development
5.1. Objectives of Training and Development
The principal objective of training and development is to make sure the availability of a skilled and willing workforce to an organization. In addition to that, there are four other objectives: Individual, Organizational, Functional, and Societal. Training and development is a subsystem of an organization. It ensures that randomness is reduced and learning or behavioral change takes place in structured format.
- Individual Objectives – help employees in achieving their personal goals, which in turn, enhances the individual contribution to an organization.
- Organizational Objectives – assist the organization with its primary objective by bringing individual effectiveness.
- Functional Objectives – maintain the department’s contribution at a level suitable to the organization’s needs.
- Societal Objectives – ensure that an organization is ethically and socially responsible to the needs and challenges of the society.
The quality of employees and their development through training and education are major factors in determining long-term profitability of a business organization. If you hire and keep good employees, it is good policy to invest in the development of their skills, so they can increase their productivity.
Training often is considered for new employees only. This is a mistake because ongoing training for current employees helps them adjust to rapidly changing job requirements.
Benefits that business organization receives from training and developing its workers, including:
- Improves morale of employees- Training helps the employee to get job security and job satisfaction. The more satisfied the employee is and the greater is his morale, the more he will contribute to organizational success and the lesser will be employee absenteeism and turnover.
- Less supervision- A well trained employee will be well acquainted with the job and will need less of supervision. Thus, there will be less wastage of time and efforts.
- Fewer accidents- Errors are likely to occur if the employees lack knowledge and skills required for doing a particular job. The more trained an employee is, the less are the chances of committing accidents in job and the more proficient the employee becomes.
- Chances of promotion- Employees acquire skills and efficiency during training. They become more eligible for promotion. They become an asset for the organization.
- Increased productivity- Training improves efficiency and productivity of employees. Well trained employees show both quantity and quality performance. There is less wastage of time, money and resources if employees are properly trained.
- Reduced employee turnover.
Employees frequently develop a greater sense of self-worth, dignity and well-being as they become more valuable to the firm and to society. Generally they will receive a greater share of the material gains that result from their increased productivity. These factors give them a sense of satisfaction through the achievement of personal and company goals.
5.2. Process of Training and Development
The training design process refers to a systematic approach for developing training programs. It includes the seven steps in this process. Training is one of the most profitable investments an organization can make. No matter what business or industry you are in the steps for an effective training process are the same and may be adapted anywhere. If you have ever thought about developing a training program within your organization consider the following four basic training steps. You will find that all four of these steps are mutually necessary for any training program to be effective and efficient.
Step1: Conduct a Needs Assessment, which is necessary to identify whether training is needed. This step identifies activities to justify an investment for training. The techniques necessary for the data collection are surveys, observations, interviews, and customer comment cards. Several examples of an analysis outlining specific training needs are customer dissatisfaction, low morale, low productivity, and high turnover.
The objective in establishing a needs analysis is to find out the answers to the following questions:
- “Why” is training needed?
- “What” type of training is needed?
- “When” is the training needed?
- “Where” is the training needed?
- “Who” needs the training? and “Who” will conduct the training?
- “How” will the training be performed?
By determining training needs, an organization can decide what specific knowledge, skills, and attitudes are needed to improve the employee’s performance in accordance with the company’s standards.
The needs analysis is the starting point for all training. The primary objective of all training is to improve individual and organizational performance. Establishing a needs analysis is, and should always be the first step of the training process.
Step 2: Ensure the employees motivation and basic skills necessary to master training content. This step establishes the development of current job descriptions and standards and procedures.
Job descriptions should be clear and concise and may serve as a major training tool for the identification of guidelines. Once the job description is completed, a complete list of standards and procedures should be established from each responsibility outlined in the job description. This will standardize the necessary guidelines for any future training.
Step 3: Create a learning environment that has the features necessary for learning to occur. This step is responsible for the instruction and delivery of the training program. Once you have designated your trainers, the training technique must be decided. One-on-one training, on-the-job training, group training, seminars, and workshops are the most popular methods.
Before presenting a training session, make sure you have a thorough understanding of the following characteristics of an effective trainer. The trainer should have:
- A desire to teach the subject being taught.
- A working knowledge of the subject being taught.
- An ability to motivate participants to “want” to learn.
- A good sense of humor.
- A dynamic appearance and good posture.
- A strong passion for their topic.
- A strong compassion towards their participants.
- Appropriate audio/visual equipment to enhance the training session.
For a training program to be successful, the trainer should be conscious of several essential elements, including a controlled environment, good planning, the use of various training methods, good communication skills and trainee participation.
Step 4: Ensure that trainees apply the training content to their jobs.
This step will determine how effective and profitable your training program has been. Methods for evaluation are pre-and post- surveys of customer comments cards, the establishment of a cost/benefit analysis outlining your expenses and returns, and an increase in customer satisfaction and profits. The reason for an evaluation system is simple. The evaluations of training programs are without a doubt the most important step in the training process. It is this step that will indicate the effectiveness of both the training as well as the trainer.
There are several obvious benefits for evaluating a training program. First, evaluations will provide feedback on the trainer’s performance, allowing them to improve themselves for future programs. Second, evaluations will indicate its cost-effectiveness. Third, evaluations are an efficient way to determine the overall effectiveness of the training program for the employees as well as the organization.
The importance of the evaluation process after the training is critical. Without it, the trainer does not have a true indication of the effectiveness of the training. Consider this information the next time you need to evaluate your training program. You will be amazed with the results.
The need for training your employees has never been greater. As business and industry continues to grow, more jobs will become created and available. Customer demands, employee morale, employee productivity, and employee turnover as well as the current economic realities of a highly competitive workforce are just some of the reasons for establishing and implementing training in an organization. To be successful, all training must receive support from the top management as well as from the middle and supervisory levels of management. It is a team effort and must be implemented by all members of the organization to be fully successful.
5.3. Training Methods
Trainings can generally be categorized as on-the-job or off-the-job:
- On-the-job training takes place in a normal working situation, using the actual tools, equipment, documents or materials that trainees will use when fully trained. On-the-job training has a general reputation as most effective for vocational work.
- Off-the-job training takes place away from normal work situations — implying that the employee does not count as a directly productive worker while such training takes place. Off-the-job training has the advantage that it allows people to get away from work and concentrate more thoroughly on the training itself. This type of training has proven more effective in inculcating concepts and ideas.
- On –the- Job Training
The most frequently used method in smaller organizations that is on the job training. This method of training uses more knowledgeable, experienced and skilled employees, such as mangers, supervisors to give training to less knowledgeable, skilled, and experienced employees. OJT can be delivered in classrooms as well. This type of training often takes place at the work place in informal manner.
On the Job Training is characterized by following points
- It is done on ad-hoc manner with no formal procedure, or content
- At the start of training, or during the training, no specific goals or objectives are developed
- Trainers usually have no formal qualification or training experience for training
- Training is not carefully planned or prepared
- The trainer are selected on the basis of technical expertise or area knowledge
The four techniques for on the job development are:
- Coaching is one of the training methods, which is considered as a corrective method for inadequate performance.
A coach is the best training plan for the CEO’s because
- It is one to one interaction
- It can be done at the convenience of CEO
- It can be done on phone, meetings, through e-mails, chat
- It provides an opportunity to receive feedback from an expert
- It helps in identifying weaknesses and focus on the area that needs improvement
This method best suits for the people at the top because if we see on emotional front, when a person reaches the top, he gets lonely and it becomes difficult to find someone to talk to. It helps in finding out the executive’s specific developmental needs.
- Mentoring is an ongoing relationship that is developed between a senior and junior employee. Mentoring provides guidance and clear understanding of how the organization goes to achieve its vision and mission to the junior employee.
The meetings are not as structured and regular than in coaching. Executive mentoring is generally done by someone inside the company. The executive can learn a lot from mentoring. By dealing with diverse mentee’s, the executive is given the chance to grow professionally by developing management skills and learning how to work with people with diverse background, culture, and language and personality types.
Executives also have mentors. In cases where the executive is new to the organization, a senior executive could be assigned as a mentor to assist the new executive settled into his role. Mentoring is one of the important methods for preparing them to be future executives. This method allows the mentor to determine what is required to improve mentee’s performance. Once the mentor identifies the problem, weakness, and the area that needs to be worked upon, the mentor can advise relevant training. The mentor can also provide opportunities to work on special processes and projects that require use of proficiency.
Some key points on Mentoring
- Mentoring focus on attitude development
- Conducted for management-level employees
- Mentoring is done by someone inside the company
- It is one-to-one interaction
- It helps in identifying weaknesses and focus on the area that needs improvement
- Job rotation takes on different perspectives. The executive is usually not simply going to another department. In some vertically integrated organizations, for example, where the supplier is actually part of same organization or subsidiary, job rotation might be to the supplier to see how the business operates from the supplier point of view. Learning how the organization is perceived from the outside broadens the executive’s outlook on the process of the organization. Or the rotation might be to a foreign office to provide a global perspective. For managers being developed for executive roles, rotation to different functions in the company is regular carried out.
This approach allows the manger to operate in diverse roles and understand the different issues that crop up. If someone is to be a corporate leader, they must have this type of training. A recent study indicated that the single most significant factor that leads to leader’s achievement was the variety of experiences in different departments, business units, cities, and countries.
An organized and helpful way to develop talent for the management or executive level of the organization is job rotation. It is the process of preparing employees at a lower level to replace someone at the next higher level. It is generally done for the designations that are crucial for the effective and efficient functioning of the organization.
Some of the major benefits of job rotation are:
- It provides the employees with opportunities to broaden the horizon of knowledge, skills, and abilities by working in different departments, business units, functions, and countries
- Identification of Knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) required
- It determines the areas where improvement is required
- Assessment of the employees who have the potential and caliber for filling the position
- Job Instruction Technique (JIT) uses a strategy with focus on knowledge (factual and procedural), skills and attitudes development.
JIT Consists of Four Steps:
Plan – This step includes a written breakdown of the work to be done because the trainer and the trainee must understand that documentation is must and important for the familiarity of work. A trainer who is aware of the work well is likely to do many things and in the process might miss few things. Therefore, a structured analysis and proper documentation ensures that all the points are covered in the training program.
The second step is to find out what the trainee knows and what training should focus on. Then, the next step is to create a comfortable atmosphere for the trainees’ i.e. proper orientation program, availing the resources, familiarizing trainee with the training program, etc.
Present – In this step, trainer provides the synopsis of the job while presenting the participants the different aspects of the work. When the trainer finished, the trainee demonstrates how to do the job and why is that done in that specific manner. Trainee actually demonstrates the procedure while emphasizing the key points and safety instructions.
Trial – This step actually a kind of rehearsal step, in which trainee tries to perform the work and the trainer is able to provide instant feedback. In this step, the focus is on improving the method of instruction because a trainer considers that any error if occurring may be a function of training not the trainee. This step allows the trainee to see the after effects of using an incorrect method. The trainer then helps the trainee by questioning and guiding to identify the correct procedure.
Follow-up – In this step, the trainer checks the trainee’s job frequently after the training program is over to prevent bad work habits from developing. There are various methods of training, which can be divided in to cognitive and behavioral methods. Trainers need to understand the pros and cons of each method, also its impact on trainees keeping their background and skills in mind before giving training.
- Off –the- Job Training
There are many management development techniques that an employee can take in off the job. The few popular methods are:
1) Sensitivity Training is about making people understand about themselves and others reasonably, which is done by developing in them social sensitivity and behavioral flexibility.
Social sensitivity in one word is empathy. It is ability of an individual to sense what others feel and think from their own point of view. Behavioral flexibility is ability to behave suitably in light of understanding.
Sensitivity Training Program requires three steps:
Unfreezing the Old Values –
It requires that the trainees become aware of the inadequacy of the old values. This can be done when the trainee faces dilemma in which his old values is not able to provide proper guidance. The first step consists of a small procedure:
- An unstructured group of 10-15 people is formed.
- Unstructured group without any objective looks to the trainer for its guidance
- But the trainer refuses to provide guidance and assume leadership
- Soon, the trainees are motivated to resolve the uncertainty
- Then, they try to form some hierarchy. Some try assume leadership role which may not be liked by other trainees
- Then, they started realizing that what they desire to do and realize the alternative ways of dealing with the situation
Procedure of Sensitivity Training
Development of New Values – With the trainer’s support, trainees begin to examine their interpersonal behavior and giving each other feedback. The reasoning of the feedbacks are discussed which motivates trainees to experiment with range of new behaviors and values. This process constitutes the second step in the change process of the development of these values.
Refreezing the new ones – This step depends upon how much opportunity the trainees get to practice their new behaviors and values at their work place.
2) Lecture is telling someone about something. Lecture is given to enhance the knowledge of listener or to give him the theoretical aspect of a topic. Training is basically incomplete without lecture. When the trainer begins the training session by telling the aim, goal, agenda, processes, or methods that will be used in training that means the trainer is using the lecture method. It is difficult to imagine training without lecture format.
3) Games and Simulations are structured and sometimes unstructured, that are usually played for enjoyment sometimes are used for training purposes as an educational tool. Training games and simulations are different from work as they are designed to reproduce or simulate events, circumstances, processes that take place in trainees’ job.
A Training Game is defined as spirited activity or exercise in which trainees compete with each other according to the defined set of rules. Simulation is creating computer versions of real-life games. Simulation is about imitating or making judgment or opining how events might occur in a real situation. It can entail intricate numerical modeling, role playing without the support of technology, or combinations. Training games and simulations are now seen as an effective tool for training because its key components are:
Trainees can therefore experience these events, processes, games in a controlled setting where they can develop knowledge, skills, and attitudes or can find out concepts that will improve their performance. The various methods that come under Games and Simulations are:
- Business Games
- Case Studies
- Equipment Stimulators
- Role Plays
5.4. Career Development
Career development is an organized approach used to match employee goals with the business needs of the agency in support of workforce development initiatives.
Career development involves managing your career either within or between organizations. It also includes learning new skills, and making improvements to help you in your career. Career development is an ongoing, lifelong process to help you learn and achieve more in your career. Whether you are looking at making a career change, or moving up within a company, planning your own career development will help you succeed. By creating a personal career development plan, you can set goals and objectives for your own personal career growth.
The purpose of career development is to:
- Enhance each employee’s current job performance.
- Enable individuals to take advantage of future job opportunities.
- Fulfill companies’ goals for a dynamic and effective workforce.
5.4.1 Process of Career Development
The word career refers to all types of employment ranging from semi-skilled through skilled, and semi professional to professional. The term career has often been restricted to suggest an employment commitment to a single trade skill, profession or business firm for the entire working life of a person. In recent years, however, career now refers to changes or modifications in employment during the foreseeable future.
Career development and the career planning process include a number of specific steps that help to identify personal skills and attributes.
Step 1: Self-Assessment
Evaluating who you are as a person, this involves taking a personal inventory of who you are and identifying your individual values, interests, skills, and personal qualities. What makes you tick as a person? You will look at those personal attributes under a microscope and come up with key qualities you can identify and use in your search for the perfect career. Career assessments may be required to promote a better understanding of personal attributes and skills. Contact your Career Services Office at your college to discuss if a career assessment may be right for you.
Self-Assessment Reality Check Goal Setting Action Planning
Step 2: Research (Career Exploration)
Obtain an insider’s perspective about the career field you are considering. Conduct Informational Interviews in person, phone, or by email. Professionals enjoy sharing their expertise with people interested in the field. Perform informational interviews with alumni from your college to gain their perspective of the field and to listen to what they have to say.
Step 3: Decision-Making
Once you’ve made a thorough self-assessment and have done some research of career options, it’s time to make a decision. This can be difficult since there may still be many unknowns and a fear of making the wrong choice. One thing for sure is that although we can do all the necessary steps to making an informed decision, there is no absolute certainty that we are unquestioningly making the right decision. This uncertainty is easier for some people than others but a key point to remember is that you can always learn from any job you have and take those skills and apply them at your next job.
Step4: Search (Taking Action)
It’s now time to look for prospective jobs and/or employers, send out cover letters and resumes, and begin networking with people in the field. Keep in mind that cover letters and resumes are designed to make a favorable impression on employers (if done properly) and the interview process is what will ultimately land you the job. In other words, make sure your cover letter and resume highlight your skills and strengths based on the employer’s needs and that you are fully prepared to knock their socks off at the interview. Take time to research the employer’s website prior to the interview, and be prepared to ask thoughtful questions based on your research.
Step 5: Acceptance
Learning the skills above will increase your chances of gaining meaningful and satisfactory work as well as help you to avoid many of the stresses that occur with changing jobs. By recognizing that change is good (even advantageous), changing jobs can be viewed as a positive experience and need not be as anxiety provoking as it may initially seem. You will continue the process of self-assessment, research, decision-making, and job searching in order to make effective and fulfilling career changes throughout your lifetime. It is a known fact that most professionals leave an organization due to lack of career growth. Active career development initiatives by a company are a key retention tool to keep the best talent within its fold. It is one of the greatest motivators to keep an employee happy and engaged. But does career planning and development of employees actually make a difference to the productivity of a worker? Most organizations think so, and consider it a part of their critical human resource strategy. From the employees’ point of view career development initiatives gives them a clear focus about their career track, the blind spots that they have to overcome and the final goal to be reached. This focused approach works to their advantage from their everyday work to long-term aspirations.
The impact of career development/ succession planning programmes can be seen through the productivity indicator, engagement surveys and reduction in attrition rate. It is in fact a win-win situation for all.
5.4.2 Objective of Career Development
Career Management is the combination of structured planning and the active management choice of one’s own professional career. The outcome of successful career management should include personal fulfillment, work/life balance, goal achievement and financial assurance.
The career management process begins with setting goals/objectives. A relatively specific goal/objective must be formulated.
The time horizon for the achievement of the selected goals or objectives - short term, medium term or long term - will have a major influence on their formulation.
- Short term goals (one or two years) are usually specific and limited in scope. Short term goals are easier to formulate. Make sure they are achievable and relate to your longer term career goals.
- Intermediate goals (3 to 20 years) tend to be less specific and more open ended than short term goals. Both intermediate and long term goals are more difficult to formulate than short term goals because there are so many unknowns about the future.
- Long term goals (more than 100 years), of course, are the most fluid of all. Lack of life experience and knowledge about potential opportunities and pitfalls make the formulation of long term goals/ objectives very difficult. Long range goals/objectives, however, may be easily modified as additional information is received without a great loss of career efforts because of experience/knowledge transfer from one career to another.
- Making career choices and decisions – the traditional focus of careers interventions. The changed nature of work means that individuals may now have to revisit this process more frequently now and in the future, more than in the past.
- Managing the organizational career – concerns the career management tasks of individuals within the workplace, such as decision-making, life-stage transitions, dealing with stress etc.
- Managing ‘boundary less’ careers – refers to skills needed by workers whose employment is beyond the boundaries of a single organization, a work style common among, for example, artists and designers.
- Taking control of one’s personal development – as employers take less responsibility, employees need to take control of their own development in order to maintain and enhance their employability. Career development, as both a field of study and a practical form of training for workers, is primarily concerned with producing better employees and maximizing employee potential.